Alkanes – saturated hydrocarbons. The names The halogen is treated as a substituent on an alkane chain. Alkenes and Alkynes – unsaturated hydrocarbons. Organic: Nomenclature–Alkanes, Alkenes, & Alkynes.  . Other Actions. Embed Nomenclature: Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes. basic IUPAC naming. The nomenclature for alkanes is based on To name an alkane, first identify the .

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The parent allkyne is the longest chain containing both carbon atoms of the double bond. Atom, smallest unit into which matter can be divided without the release of electrically charged particles. Over million tons of ethylene were produced worldwide in for use in the polymer, petrochemical, and plastic industries. What Is Avogadros Number. Higher alkynes can be made from acetylene see below Chemical properties or by double elimination of a dihaloalkane nomneclature.

Cyclopentene is an example of an endocyclic double bond. Here is a chart containing the systemic name for the first twenty straight chain alkenes. During engine operation these vapours are aokane and burned in the engine. Endocyclic double bonds have both carbons in the ring and exocyclic double bonds have only one carbon as part of the ring. If two or more side chains are in equivalent positions, assign the lowest number to the one which will come first in the name.

This compound contains 16 hydrogen atoms for a molecular formula of C 8 H Here are some examples: We can distinguish several types of hydrocarbons by differences in the bonding between carbon alkyns.

Other plastics, like polyethylene bags and polypropylene cups, plastic food containerscan be recycled or reprocessed to be alkxne again. It is correct to also name this compound as 1-methylcyclobutene. Esters Systematic names of esters are based on the name of the corresponding carboxylic acid.

Alcohol Phenol And Ether. Submarine hydrocarbons petroleum In petroleum sedimentary nomenclture In sedimentary rock: Because the carbon atom numbering begins at the end closest to a substituent, the longest chain of carbon atoms is numbered in such a way as to produce the lowest number for the substituents.


The root chain must be numbered from the end nearest a double bond carbon atom. The reaction of acetylene with bromine is a typical example:. Skills to Develop Explain the importance of hydrocarbons and the reason for their diversity Name saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, and molecules derived from them Describe the reactions characteristic of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons Identify structural and geometric isomers of hydrocarbons.

For example, nomenclatire add to the double bond in an alkene instead of replacing hydrogen, as occurs in an alkane:. Alkynes Hydrocarbon molecules with one or more triple bonds are called alkynes ; they make up another series of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Practise s of questions mapped to your syllabus. Draw three isomers of a six-membered aromatic ring compound substituted with two bromines. This aljene is called an addition reaction.

Plastics are synthetic organic solids that can be molded; they are typically organic polymers with high molecular alkyen.

Organic: Nomenclature–Alkanes, Alkenes, & Alkynes Tutorial | Sophia Learning

Congratulations You have selected the correct answer!! Alkanf undesired evaporation of gasoline hydrocarbons into the air has been controlled by sealing the fuel tank and venting the tank through a liquid-vapour separator into a canister containing activated charcoal.

The IUPAC nomenclature for alkynes is similar to that for alkenes except that the suffix -yne is used to indicate a triple bond in the chain. Each of the carbon atoms in an alkane has sp 3 hybrid orbitals and is bonded to four other atoms, each of which is either carbon or hydrogen.

Hence, as with alkanes, a consistent nomenclature system needs to be adopted that can separate the nature of these unsaturated chemicals. The hydroxyl group takes precedence over alkyl groups and halogen substituents, as well as double bonds, in the numbering of the parent chain.

Note that alkyl groups do not exist as stable independent entities. Aromatic compounds more readily undergo substitution reactions than addition reactions; replacement of one of the hydrogen atoms with another substituent will leave the delocalized double bonds intact.


The four-carbon chain is numbered from the end with the chlorine atom. Longer chains are named as follows: Alkdne are branches or functional groups that replace hydrogen atoms on a chain. The familiar plastics polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene are also hydrocarbons. Rule 1 Alkenes are named alkyns the same general naming rules for akkyne, except that the suffix is now -ene. This molecule would be called cis 5-chloroheptene.

Organic: Nomenclature–Alkanes, Alkenes, & Alkynes

Remember esters look like this: The compound 2-butene and some other alkenes also form a second type of isomer called a geometric isomer. Z zusammen means the higher priority groups are on the same side relative to the double bond.

It is correct to also name this compound as 1-ethenylcyclohexene. A common method used by organic chemists to simplify the drawings of larger molecules is to use a skeletal structure also called a line-angle structure.

Four carbon atoms in the chain of butene allows for the formation of isomers based on the position of the double bond, as well as a new form of isomerism.

The compounds n -butane and 2-methylpropane are structural nomenclqture the term constitutional isomers is also commonly used. Removal of any one of the four hydrogen atoms from methane forms a methyl group.

The resonance structures for benzene, C 6 H 6are:. The ending -o replaces -ide at the end of the name of an electronegative substituent in ionic compounds, the negatively charged ion ends with -ide like chloride; in organic compounds, such atoms are treated as substituents and the -o ending is used.

Valence bond theory describes the benzene molecule and other planar aromatic hydrocarbon molecules as hexagonal rings of sp 2 -hybridized carbon atoms with the unhybridized allkene orbital of each carbon atom perpendicular to the plane of the ring.