LEI 13407 PDF

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No additional information on the filter plates of M. In order to understand the complicated taxonomic history of M.

Specimens examined are listed in the Material Examined section. Intraspecific divergences based on the NADH2 marker and uncorrected p -distance measure were low, ranging between 0 and 0. Thus, of the currently known Indo-Pacific species, M. These analyses suggested that these two species were more closely related than are M.

This is problematic, especially for the purposes of distinguishing species boundaries and making taxonomic decisions among closely related lineages. Since the descriptive characters used in this description are based on the same specimen used to describe M.

Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article at the publisher’s web-site:. For example, the location of the spiracles beneath the origin of the pectoral fins discounts the two large Indo-Pacific species, M. In this case, the evidence towards keeping these species separate is very weak, while the evidence to synonymize is quite strong. The distinction between M.

Translation of the resulting nucleotide alignment confirmed that it was in frame and free of stop codons which may indicate sequencing errors or misalignment. Nacellidae based on a complete phylogeny of the genus, with the description of a new species from the southern tip of South America.

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While it is possible that a future large, population level, comparative study of both species based on molecular and leo characters may reveal that they are distinct, potentially hybridizing species, the weight of the current evidence does not suggest this.

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Consistent with the results based on the NADH2 data, comparisons falling at the lower end of this range were those between M. Mobulidae with the description of a new species. Phylogeny of the manta and devilrays Chondrichthyes: As mentioned previously, very few whole mobulid specimens that are in sufficiently good condition to enable more detailed morphological comparisons can be found in museum collections. This study provides new information to support the synonymization of these two species, with precedence given to M.

Accedunt Spolia Maris Adriatici.

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In the case of M. Mobula mobular and Mobula japanica were previously considered distinct species. Mobula kuhlii and M. Related articles in Web of 134407 Google Scholar. Despite being an older name, S. Moreover, a 1307 study has provided evidence that these species diverged relatively recently and have experienced post-divergence gene flow. The trait which distinguishes M. Taxonomic research on this group has been complicated by poor representation of mobulids in biological collections because of their large size.

Genomic DNA was quantified using a Qubit 2.

Other unique traits include a strong ridge on the midline of the body, very falcate pectoral fins, and a short tail that is rigid and rod-like. They are thus not useful characters for determining relationships amongst species within the Mobulidae. Based on the lack of any substantial distinguishing features to separate these two species and the genetic results available, these two species are herein considered conspecific, with M.

Due to the large size of these species, obtaining accurate material for comparison is relatively difficult. We now demonstrate that these taxa are virtually indistinguishable based on sequence data from a large number of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. For example, preliminary investigation into the structure of the vertebrae beneath the first dorsal fin of several mobulid species in Indonesia revealed that M.

This is reflected in the very close relationships resolved between these species pairs based on the ML analysis of the NADH2 data. Notably, interspecific comparisons of p -distance between samples nominally identified as Manta birostris versus Manta alfredi range 0—0.

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Any contig that matched a pHMM with an E-value less than 1. Post mortem auctoris edidit Carsten Niebuhr. It should be noted that, of all our pairwise species comparisons, the comparison between M.

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Likewise, suggestions that other traits such as branchial filter plate morphology may also differ between these species, have been based on limited samples Paig-Tran et al.

The analyses of the mitochondrial genome and nuclear exon data produced topologically similar results. The second bait library included sequences derived from five batoid species and targeted slow-evolving, nuclear exons that were identified previously to be putatively single-copy orthologs across six available model vertebrate genomes Homo, AnolisCallorhinchusDanioGallus and Xenopus ; Li et al.

Teeth can vary greatly in morphology within a species depending on size and sex. In the nuclear data, M. We argue that obtaining access to such sample sizes is unlikely for these species and so their taxonomy should reflect the best available evidence, which is to synonymize these species, as we have done. This grouping is sister to M. A DNA sequence-based approach to the identification of shark and ray species and its implications for global elasmobranch diversity and parasitology.

This character was also reported by Notarbartolo di Sciara et al.

We therefore attempted to remove any remaining potentially paralogous comparisons from our dataset by conducting a stringent likelihood ratio test that compared clock and non-clock-like models for each exon. Mobula Rafinesque,48, 61 type species Mobula auriculata Rafinesque, ; by monotypy. In the case of this species pair, a complex nomenclatural history is now combined with inferences from both morphology and molecular data to suggest conspecificity and we have thus revised the taxonomy to reflect this.

In addition to being used to confirm nominal species identifications, this dataset was also used to explore intra- versus inter-specific divergences for larger sample sizes than that could be included in our DNA hybridization capture experiments. This character was not confirmed with the specimens examined in this study.